Carpets from Turkmenistan
The resulting struggle between father and son saw Oghuz Khan emerge as victor. He became ruler of the Oghuz people and conquered the entire known world: his reign stretched as far as the Land of Darkness. (16)
Oghuz Khan had six sons. They went by the names of Kun Khan (Khan stands for "prince" and Kun means "sun"), Ay Khan (Prince of the Moon), Yulduz Khan (Prince of the Star), Kuk Khan (Prince of the Sky), Tak Khan (Prince of the Mountain) and Tingiz Khan (Prince of the Sea)(18).
One day Oghuzís sons went on a hunt and found a golden bow and three arrows. They talked to their father and asked him to justly divide the items between the six of them. He gave the bow as a whole to the three elder sons, who were ranked higher and were to protect his right flank, receiving the name Bozuk (which stands for "to divide in order to distribute")(20).
Each of the three younger brothers was given a golden arrow and instructed they were to protect Oghuzís left flank. He called them Och-Uk (Och means "three" and Uk means "arrow," so they were called "Three Arrows").
After living for a thousand years, Oghuz died(21) and, following his orders, the oldest son Kun Khan succeeded him.
Kun Khan and his brothers each had four sons. In order to prevent dispute and establish proper cattle ownership, Kun Khan took the advice of his fatherís confidant, Ikit Irkil Khowja, and handed to each of the sons one Tamgha (insignia or brand). He assigned an animal to each of his five brothers and their four sons; these were meant to function as Onghun (totem or protective spirits). The word "Oneghun" derives from "Inag Bolsun" and means: "It has been blessed". (22)
Here is the list of the brothers, who were called Bozuk and made up the right flank or side of Oghuz Khanís army. They included the following which are listed below with the meaning for each name and the associated Tamgha (mark or branding sign) and the Oneghun (totem animal):
In addition to these details Rashid al-Din also listed the select pieces of meat that were ceremonially allotted to each of the grandchildren of Oghuz Khan. For a long time, historians did not know what to make of this information but eventually it was discovered it was a custom of the Turkic people to hand the best piece of meat to the most notable and important guest of the festival (Toi).
Over time this custom(Toi) changed from being a matter of culinary indulgence into one of rank and hierarchy that lead to conflicts and much contention(26).
These myths show how social and politico-economic necessities determined the customs that ruled the lives of these Oghuz nomads, as well as their successors.
Here are some other ruling customs and traditions:
Tribal hierarchy and strict adherence to the customs and habits of the clan were the basis for the cohabitation of a people(Turkmen) for whom freedom, liberality and independence were the highest values. These ideals ranked immeasurably higher than political power and influence. The Turkmen abhorred solid houses, sedentariness and wastefulness.